## Correlation and Causation

On Chapter 3, we earned about correlation. In this chapter, I it was a bit difficult to catch up because there are so many calculation and keywords relate into this. It is a really fun topic to learn, and see the association between two variables. We did a small project where we survey Liger students and we compare those data to see are there a correlation. It turns out that height and weigh have a high correlation.

Correlation (r) has a range from -1 to 1; when r = 1 or -1 means that two variable are really correlated but that does not means that one causing another. Correlation means that the two variable have an association; causation means that one causing another to happen, we can conclude that only if we do the experiment.

## S’mores Lab

Part of our chemistry class, in term three, we learn about chemical reactions and determine bonds types. When we learned about determine bonds type, everyone in the class perceives the information quickly — because of our teacher! When it comes to chemical reaction and calculating excess reactant or limited reactant, most of us was froze. However our facilitator, Ellie, assigned us to do a lab where the product is s’mores.  From that lab we need to calculate the limited reactants and the excess reactant. For me, I learn each ingredient of s’mores and I can implement it into the actual chemical. I better understand of calculating chemical reaction better than just learning it theoretically.

Lab Report

Problem:  Given a certain quantity of marshmallows, graham crackers, and chocolate pieces, what is the maximum number of S’mores that can be made?  Then figure out your percent yield!

 Substance Symbol Graham Cracker (half of a cracker) Gc Marshmallow M Chocolate Piece (individual piece of chocolate) Cp S’more  (2 crackers, 2 pieces of chocolate, 2 marshmallow) Gc2MCp2

Procedure/data:

1.  Use the 3 different reactants and one product to write a balanced equation for the making of s’mores

2Gc + 2M  + 2Cp → 1Gc2MCp2

1. What type of reaction would this be classified as? Both chemical and physical reaction
2.  Record the total moles (pieces) of each reactant available at your table

Graham Cracker (Gc)-  6 Marshmallow (M)-  8       Chocolate Pieces (Cp)- 6

(amount of halfs of Gc) (each single marshmallow) (each single chocolate piece- 12 per bar)

1. What is the maximum number of s’mores that your group can make?   3 s’mores

Why? The reason that we can make 3 s’mores because we got 6 mol Gc, 6 mol Cp, and 8 mol M, and for 6 mol of Cp we can only make 3 s’mores.

Which reactant/s is/are limiting?  (the one/s that you will run out of first) : Gc and Cp

Which reactant/s is/are  in excess (the one/s that will be left over) M

1. Find the mass of one of each of the individual reactants (first zero a napkin and then find the mass on top of the napkin)

Graham Cracker (Gc)-  7.9 g Marshmallow (M)-  3.8 g Chocolate Piece (Cp)- 2.9 g

(one halfs of Gc) (one single marshmallow)           (one single chocolate piece)

1. Record the theoretical yield/mass of a S’more (Gc2M2Cp2) using your reactants (you can add them together) = 29.2 g
a. Make sure that you follow the chemical reaction equation and get all of the reactants ready.
3. roast your marshmallows over the Bunsen burner using a skewer. And then make your finished product.
4. Before eating your s’more find the actual mass (yield) of your s’more

(put a napkin on the scale, zero the scale and THEN put on your smore).

The ACTUAL (experimental) mass of one s’mores: 29.0 g

1.  Find the percent yield of your s’mores: 29.0/29.2 * 100 = 99.32 %   Theoretical yield = from part 6 Actual or experiemental yield= from part 7c

percent yield= 99.32%

1. How did you know which reactant was limiting?

Graham Cracker and Chocolate Piece are the limiting reactants. Based on the chemical equations, to create a s’mor  we need 2Gc, 2M, and 2Cp; we got only 6 Cp and 6 Gc and 8M. When we divide all reactant by 2 there’s no remaining for Gc and Cp, but remaining 2M. From the arithmetic, we can see that Gc and Cp runs out first — so they are the limiting reactant.

1. How did you figure out the excess reactant?

We know that Marshmello is an excess reactant because we need only 6 (based on the common factor of the limit reactants) to create 3 s’mors, but the total marshmello is 8. This leave a remaining of 2 marshmallows. Also during the experiment, we followed the chemical reaction equation and turned out that there are two marshmallow left over.

1. How did you figure out your theoretical yield for your product?

We weigh all of the reactants: Graham Cracker (Gc)-  7.9 g, Marshmallow (M)- 3.8 g, and Chocolate Piece (Cp)- 2.9 g. We take each reactant multiply by 2 (based on the equation) and sum it all up; we got a total of 29.2 g per s’mor.

## Chemistry Round 1

This year of Liger we started to have a chemistry built in our essential. I found out that I do like chemistry, especially learning about the atoms. This term, we were learning the introduction of chemistry: Matters, Mole and Molar mass, Periodic Table, Atom Structure, Electron Configuration, and Valence Electron. The topic that I think it was struggling for me is the Electron Configuration. Moreover, we did a lot of experiments: Coin Density, Liquid Density, and Flame Emission.

The most interesting lab was the Flame Emission! For this experiment, we try to burn many types of salt like Copper (II) chloride, Lithium Chloride, Potassium Chloride etc. Each of these salt emits a different type of color: for Copper (II) Chloride emits cyan light. It was a really fun experiment that I ever have out of other experiments.

For my final project of the round, I did a presentation that explains to the class about the Electron Configuration. I choose this topic because it was a difficult topic to understand, so I just challenge myself to do it. It turns out that I did it very well, my classmates asked me more questions about the topic and I got 1 bonus point!

## SAT Preparation

The SAT is in the 2 weeks and I still have no idea of what’s going to happens. Everyday in math class, we had about 30 minutes of class time to work on math section. I don’t think I have enough time to do it! Every students in the school require to practice out side of class time 30 minutes to 1 hour each day. SAT is not the only thing that depict us how smart we are, but for students who want to go to university at America, we need to do it!

During the summer holiday, I spent most of the time practicing the SAT and I did get some good result out of it. I know that the only way to get better is to practice; you need to practice every day! I felt better when I’m at home practicing, but when I’m in school, I don’t feel good about it because of my busy works.

To be honest, I don’t really practice SAT that much, but in the next two weeks, I will deadly practice it every single day. I know it a procrastination, but practice for 2 weeks is better than practice nothing.

We use some resources like Khan Academy, textbooks, and college board website. Those resources help me to gain confident little by little. I feel anxious about the upcoming SAT; I hope I do it well.

## Khmer MUN

Part of our Khmer class assignment, we work assembling Model United Nation (MUN) in Khmer language. We spend time, researching on the topics which are green city and fighting hungers. I had experience in MUN in English language, however, I am inexperience in Khmer language. This is an experiment in implementing this program to other Cambodian classes.

## Gender Submit

In our literacy class, we learn about gender! The final result of list lesson is to write a news article about gender. My topic is about the insulting word call “Bitch”. I have a concern why this word is so popular in current world; personally, I think this word bring women’s value to the ground very hard.

I went to do some research on the web and interview people at the riverside at Phnom Penh, Cambodia. There were a lot of responses, both good and bad, to this topic. There were plenty of challenges to me in doing this project: One, is the time, our facilitator helped to push us this project because she needs this for the Exploration project. Second is the structure, I found out that it was very hard for me to write a news article (since that was my first time). As a result, I end up finishing the project on time with my friend helped to edit.

Moreover, Liger hosted an event called “Gender Submit” and I also participate in that event. That was a very great event for me to get in-depth about gender, so I can use this idea and help to distribute to people in my village. I think that gender equity is one of the main issues where people in this country don’t really think about it. Men were more educated than women, while women were more likely to leave work after giving birth.

These are the problems, participating in “Gender Submit” provides me stronger ideas of how we make changes in my country. I was very excited to have other students from a different type of schools to join this event. I have a dream that every school in the world should have this event once a year as a door for children to see the real world because this is not a women issue, it’s human rights issue.

## Edith Clarke – The Clarke Calculator

Background:

Edith Clarke was born on February 10, 1883, in a farming region near Ellicott City, United States. In her childhood life, it was a bit different from others; at the age of seven her father passed away while five years later her mom passed away. So then her uncle was become her guardian legally and sent her to a boarding school.

Educations and Jobs:

After finish high school at the age of 18, Clarke continues her study journey at the Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. In the college, math and astronomy was Clarke’s degree. In 1908 she finished her college and begin her life as a teacher in a private girls’ school in San Francisco and after that, she taught in Marshall College.

After a few years of teaching, Clarke decided to return back to school and continue another degree in civil engineering at the University of Wisconsin in 1911. At the end of the first year at Wisconsin university, Clarke finds a summer job as “Computer Assistant” art AT&T. During the job, Clarke got addicted to it and quit school to have a full-time work at AT&T.

While working at AT&T Clarke love learning and spent her free time to learn in colleges and university. Some of the degree that she took were radio at Hunter College and electrical engineering at Columbia University.

Seven years later, Edith Clarke changes her journey in continuing her study as a master degree in electrical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). After graduated in master degree from MIT, Clarke enrolled in a company calls General Electric (GE) as a role in computer. But in 1921, she left GE and went to be a physics professor in Constantinople Women’s College in Turkey; in 1922 she returned back to GE and work as an electrical engineer. After 26 years of working at GE Clarke shifted her career working as a teacher at the University of Texas.

Invention:

One of Edith Clarke famous inventions calls, the Clarke Calculator. Historically electric power has a lot of limitation in transmitting to a long distance. Before the Clarke Calculation, the electrical transmission line can go few miles like 50 miles; in Clarke’s report stated, “accuracy is desired in calculations for long lines.” From the quote that stated in Clarke’s report meant that, after her calculator was found, the transmission line can go for long distance like 200 miles and a better accuracy. In 1921 while Clarke was working in the GE, she was found out a mathematical technique that calculates for a long distance transmission line; her mathematical technique is given power system and its behavior the technique is called symmetrical components. From that time on transmission line were getting longer and longer with more and more accurate.

After Edith Clarke had found the invention, she began to write a paperwork to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) in 1926. Clarke was the first woman who submits the paperwork to AIEE and the first woman to be elected the as a fellow of Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, IEEE.

The First:

In the past, there were not much of women involving in STEM, but Clarke has a lot of interests in STEM and become one of those women who changed the perspective of women in STEM. Based on different websites, stated that Edith Clarke was the first women who graduated from MIT in 1918. The first women become an electrical engineer professor, the first woman to teach engineering in the University of Texas, and the first woman who were hired in electrical and engineering in the US when she returned back to GE. Throughout her amazing works that she had made and revolutionize the world, she received a Society of Women Engineers Achievement Award.

Reference:

## Word of the Day: Manipulation

`https://www.npr.org/player/embed/557418328/557448820`

Every day in English literacy class, our first to do list is the word of the day. In order to become better in English, our facilitator is also improving our vocabulary skills. So one of the words is called manipulation that means, handle or control in a skillful manner; control or influence a person or situation in a clever exploitative manner.

My example is: For my experience, if we get so interest in something people can easily manipulate on you, so you can their product or service.

Most of the day when I’m free I listen to this National Podcast Radio (NPR) of TEDx and one of the topics that interest me is manipulation. In the topic of manipulation, there is a podcast of Tristan Harris: Do Our Devices Control More Than We Think? This is a really cool podcast that talks about how big company like Facebook, Google, Instagram, and Snapchat uses us. It shocked me when Harris give us an example of Snapchat, this application is the number one way that teenagers in America communicate. Harris said, SnapChat also creates a system call Snapstreak where it shows the number of streaks that people communicate. So if a person got streaks they don’t want to lose that streak so every day they just post and post and it’s like dragging them in. This is a really amazing news for me!

## Khmer Poem

Poem to me, is a subject of literacy where writers would express their feelings or want to educate something; in this poem, the structure is manipulated from the Khmer poem, the part that changed was the rhymes.

As a teenager, feelings change all the time and in some cases feelings change instantaneously, so quick that people can’t control it. I am one of them, and I understand that most of the time when I’m about to take a test, my mood would turned to be scared of getting the questions in the test wrong, and sometimes I would have a feeling of missing my family and the environment of my house. When I went to a pagoda near where I currently learn in Phnom Penh it made me think of the pagoda at my hometown. I really miss those times, those feeling and those events, whenever I think of them and this is why I decided to create this poem.

 ពហុអារម្មណ៍របស់សិស្សានុសិស្ស អារម្មណ៍គំនិតដែលបើកផ្លូវ អារម្មណ៍ដែលត្រូ​វនាំមនុស្សល្អ អារម្មណ៍ក៏មានក្នុងអ្នកក្រ អារម្មណ៍ស្មោះសរនាំជោគជ័យ។ អារម្មណ៍ក្លាហាននាំសម្ដី អារម្មណ៍ទីទៃដាក់កង្វល់ អារម្មណ៍សិក្សាអាចដើរដល់ អារម្មណ៍ងឿងឆ្ងល់នាំសំណួរ ។ អារម្មណ៍គោរពដែលសមគួរ អារម្មណ៍ប្រែប្រួលផ្ដូររាប់សែន អារម្មណ៍គ្រួសារបានដាក់ចែង អារម្មណ៍ខ្លួនឯងតែងមានឈ្លួស ។ អារម្មណ៍ធម្មជាតិដូចសត្វពស់ អារម្មណ៍មានគ្រោះដែលបាំងព័ត្រ អារម្មណ៍ទីក្រុងភ្លេចប្រវត្តិ អារម្មណ៍ក្នុងវត្តទើបនឹកស្រែ ។ អារម្មណ៍មករៀននឹកពុកម៉ែ អារម្មណ៍ខុសខែនៅតែនឹក អារម្មណ៍ទៅស្រុកក្រោកពីព្រឹក អារម្មណ៍ដូចទឹកមិនដឹងទឹស ។ អារម្មណ៍ប្រឡងធ្លាក់ដល់ដី អារម្មណ៍ដែលថ្មីនាំតស៊ូ អារម្មណ៍ទាំងនោះបានស្ដាប់គ្រូ អារម្មណ៍ដែលយូរគឺការចាំ ។ អារម្មណ៍ដែលក្ដៅនៅខែប្រាំង អារម្មណ៍ប្រឆាំងនាំកំហឹង អារម្មណ៍ជំទាស់រឺតតែខឹង អារម្មណ៍ពេលហ្នឹងទប់មិនបាន ។ អារម្មណ៍ដែលស្ងប់ស្រាប់ប្រាន អារម្មណ៍ស្ងប់បានត្រូវការឈប់ អារម្មណ៍មានញ្ញានពេលបានទប់ អារម្មណ៍ព្រលប់ត្រូវសម្រាក់ ។